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labarai

Takaitawa

Inductors abubuwa ne masu mahimmancin gaske a sauya masu canzawa, kamar ajiyar makamashi da matatun wuta. Akwai nau'ikan shigar da abubuwa da yawa, kamar na aikace-aikace daban-daban (daga ƙananan mitar zuwa maɗaukakiyar mita), ko abubuwa masu mahimmanci daban-daban waɗanda ke shafar halayen masu haɓaka, da sauransu. Inductors da aka yi amfani da su a cikin sauya masu juyawa abubuwa ne masu saurin maganadisu. Koyaya, saboda dalilai daban-daban kamar abubuwa, yanayin aiki (kamar ƙarfin lantarki da na yanzu), da yanayin zafin yanayi, halaye da ra'ayoyin da aka gabatar sun sha bamban. Sabili da haka, a cikin ƙirar kewaya, ban da mahimmin sifa na ƙimar shigarwar, alaƙar da ke tsakanin ƙarancin inductor da ƙarfin AC da mita, ƙarancin asara da halayen halin jiji da sauransu, da sauransu dole ne a yi la'akari da su. Wannan labarin zai gabatar da mahimman abubuwa masu mahimmanci masu haɓakawa da halayensu, sannan kuma zai jagoranci injiniyoyi masu ƙarfi don zaɓar wadatattun masu haɓaka.

Gabatarwa

Inductor wani abu ne na shigar da lantarki, wanda aka kirkireshi ta hanyar hada wasu tarin abubuwa (nada) akan bobbin ko mahimmin waya tare da waya mara kyau. Ana kiran wannan murfin murfin kwafin shigarwar. Dangane da ka'idar shigar da maganadisun lantarki, lokacin da murfin da maganadisu suka matsa kusa da juna, ko murfin ya samar da wata maganadisu mai sauyawa ta hanyar wani yanayi na yanzu, za'a samar da irin karfin wutar lantarki wanda zai haifar da tsayayya da canjin asalin maganadisu, kuma wannan halayyar ta hana canjin yanzu ana kiranta rashin karfin gwiwa.

Ka'idar darajar shigar da yanayi kamar tsari ne (1), wanda yake daidai da yanayin magnetic, murabba'in winding din yana juya N, da kuma daidaitaccen yanki na magnetic kewaye da Ae, kuma ya dace da daidaiton da'irar maganadisu daidai le . Akwai nau'ikan shigar da abubuwa da yawa, kowanne ya dace da aikace-aikace daban-daban; inductance yana da nasaba da siffa, girma, hanyar gogewa, yawan juyawa, da kuma irin matsakaitan maganadisu.

图片1

(1)

Dogaro da siffar asalin baƙin ƙarfe, inductance ya haɗa da toroidal, E core da drum; cikin sharuddan baƙin ƙarfe core abu, akwai yafi yafi yumbu core da biyu taushi maganadisu. Su masu danshi ne da na ƙarfe. Dogaro da tsari ko hanyar marufi, akwai rauni na waya, mai ɗumbin yawa, da kuma wanda aka ƙera, kuma raunin waya yana da mara kariya da rabi na magnetic manne Garkuwa (mai garkuwar kariya) da garkuwar (garkuwar), da dai sauransu.

Mai gabatarwa yana aiki kamar gajeren hanya a cikin yanayin kai tsaye, kuma yana gabatar da babban tasiri ga canza halin yanzu. Abubuwan amfani na yau da kullun a cikin da'irori sun haɗa da shaƙewa, tacewa, kunnawa, da kuma adana kuzari. A cikin aikace-aikacen mai sauyawa, inductor shine mafi mahimmancin kayan ajiyar makamashi, kuma yana samar da matattara mai saurin wucewa tare da mai karfin fitarwa don rage karfin wutar lantarki, don haka shima yana taka muhimmiyar rawa a aikin tacewar.

Wannan labarin zai gabatar da abubuwa masu mahimmanci masu mahimmanci da halayen su, da kuma wasu halaye na lantarki na masu haɓaka, azaman mahimmin bayani na kimantawa don zaɓar masu haɓaka yayin ƙirar kewaya. A cikin aikace-aikacen aikace-aikace, yadda za'a kirga darajar shigarwar da yadda za a zabi ingantaccen mai gabatarwa a kasuwa za'a gabatar dashi ta hanyar misalai masu amfani.

Nau'in ainihin kayan

Inductors da aka yi amfani da su a cikin sauya masu juyawa abubuwa ne masu saurin maganadisu. Babban abin da ke cikin cibiyar ya fi shafar halaye na mahaukaci, kamar rashin ƙarfi da mita, ƙimar shigarwa da mita, ko mahimman halayen jikewa. Mai zuwa zai gabatar da kwatancen abubuwa da yawa na kayan ƙarfe da halaye na jijiyoyinsu azaman muhimmin bayani game da zaɓin masu haɓaka wutar lantarki:

1. Yumbu core

Ceramic core shine ɗayan kayan aikin shigarwa gama gari. Ana amfani dashi galibi don samar da tsarin tallafi wanda aka yi amfani dashi lokacin murɗa murfin. Haka kuma ana kiranta “air core inductor”. Saboda karfen ƙarfe da aka yi amfani da shi abu ne da ba maganadisu ba tare da ƙarancin zafin jiki mai ƙarancin ƙarfi, ƙimar inductance tana da karko sosai a kewayon yanayin zafin aiki. Koyaya, saboda abubuwan da ba maganadisu ba a matsayin matsakaici, shigarwar tayi ƙasa ƙwarai, wanda bai dace da aikace-aikacen masu jujjuyawar wuta ba.

2. Ferrite

Girman ferrite da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin manyan abubuwan jan hankali shi ne sinadarin ferrite wanda ke dauke da sinadarin nickel (NiZn) ko zinc din manganese (MnZn), wanda shine abu mai laushi mai dauke da sinadarin magnetic mai karfin kuzari. Hoto na 1 yana nuna alamar hysteresis (BH loop) na babban maganadiso. Ercarfin tilastawa HC na wani abu magnetic ana kiransa coercive force, wanda ke nufin cewa lokacin da aka magnetized abu zuwa magnetic saturation, magnetization (magnetization) ya ragu zuwa sifilin Thearfin magnetic da ake buƙata a lokacin. Coarfafawa na ƙasa yana nufin ƙananan juriya ga lalatawa kuma hakan yana nufin ƙananan hasara na hysteresis.

Manganese-zinc da nickel-zinc ferrites suna da kusancin haɗin dangi (μr), kimanin 1500-15000 da 100-1000, bi da bi. Magarfin haɓakar maganadisu ya sa ƙarfin ƙarfe ya fi girma a cikin wani ƙarami. A inductance. Koyaya, rashin fa'ida shine cewa yanayin haƙurin haƙurinsa mai ƙaranci, kuma da zarar baƙin ƙarfe ya cika, ƙarfin magnetic zai faɗi ƙasa sosai. Koma zuwa Hoto na 4 don raguwar yanayin magnetic permeability na ferrite da foda baƙin ƙarfe lokacin da murfin baƙin ƙarfe ya cika. Kwatantawa. Lokacin da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin masu amfani da wutar, za a bar tazarar iska a cikin babban magnetic magnetic, wanda zai iya rage yawan aiki, kauce wa jikewa da adana ƙarin makamashi; lokacin da aka haɗa rata na iska, yanayin daidaiton dangi na iya zama kusan 20- Tsakanin 200. Tun da babban tsayayyar kayan aiki na kanta na iya rage asarar da eddy ya yi, asara tana ƙasa da manyan mitoci, kuma ya fi dacewa da masu saurin canza wuta, masu sarrafa EMI da masu sanya makamashi masu jujjuyawar masu juya wutar lantarki. Dangane da mitar aiki, nickel-zinc ferrite ya dace don amfani (> 1 MHz), yayin da manganese-zinc ferrite ya dace da ƙananan mitoci (<2 MHz).

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Hoto 1. Tsarin hysteresis na magnetic core (BR: remanence; BSAT: jikewa da magnetic juyi yawa)

3. ironarfin baƙin ƙarfe

Corearfin baƙin ƙarfe ma kayan aiki ne masu laushi-maganadisu. Ana yin su ne da gami da baƙin ƙarfe na abubuwa daban-daban ko kuma ƙarfen ƙarfe kawai. Dabarar ta ƙunshi abubuwan da ba maganadisu ba tare da nau'ikan girman ƙwayoyi daban-daban, don haka ƙwanƙolin jikewa mai sauƙi ne. Ironarfin ƙarfen foda yawanci shine toroidal. Hoto na 2 yana nuna asalin ƙarfen foda da mahangar sashe.

Powungiyoyin baƙin ƙarfe na yau da kullun sun haɗa da baƙin ƙarfe-nickel-molybdenum alloy (MPP), aikawa (Sendust), gami da baƙin ƙarfe-baƙin ƙarfe (haɓakar ruwa mai yawa) da ƙwayar baƙin ƙarfe (baƙin ƙarfe). Saboda abubuwa daban-daban, halayenta da farashin su ma daban ne, wanda ya shafi zaɓin masu jan hankali. Mai zuwa zai gabatar da nau'ikan nau'ikan da aka ambata da kuma kwatankwacin halayensu:

A. Ironarfe-nickel-molybdenum gami (MPP)

Fey-Ni-Mo gami an gajarta shi azaman MPP, wanda shine raguwar molypermalloy foda. Dangantakar dangi kusan 14-500 ne, kuma yawan juzuwar maganadisu ya kai kimanin 7500 Gauss (Gauss), wanda ya fi ƙarfin ƙarfin magnetic ruwan zafin na ferrite (kimanin 4000-5000 Gauss). Da yawa daga. MPP yana da ƙaramin asarar baƙin ƙarfe kuma yana da mafi kyawun kwanciyar hankali a tsakanin ƙwayoyin ƙarfe masu ƙarancin foda. Lokacin da halin DC na waje ya kai ga ISAT mai cikakken ƙarfi, ƙimar shigar da hankali yana raguwa a hankali ba tare da haɓakawa ba. MPP yana da aiki mafi kyau amma ya fi tsada, kuma galibi ana amfani dashi azaman mai ba da wutar lantarki da tace EMI don masu canza wuta.

 

B. Aika

Ironarfin ƙarfe-silicon-aluminum gwal ɗin ƙarfe yana da baƙin ƙarfe mai hade da baƙin ƙarfe, silicon, da aluminum, tare da haɓakar maganadiso mai ɗanɗano na kusan 26 zuwa 125. Rashin baƙin ƙarfe yana tsakanin ƙarfe foda da baƙin ƙarfe da MPP da baƙin ƙarfe-nickel . Samun yawaitar magnetic juzu'i ya fi MPP girma, kusan 10500 Gauss. Yanayin zafin jiki da yanayin yanayin jike-jike na halin yanzu sun ɗan ƙasa da MPP da ƙarfe-nickel, amma sun fi murfin baƙin ƙarfe da maɓallin ferrite, kuma kuɗin dangi ya fi na MPP da baƙin ƙarfe-nickel arha. Anfi amfani dashi galibi cikin tacewar EMI, da'irar gyaran fitilar (PFC) da mahimmancin wutar lantarki na sauya masu canza wuta.

 

C. Gwanin baƙin ƙarfe-nickel (babban juyi)

Corearin ƙarfe-nickel alloy core an yi shi ne da ƙarfe da nickel. Dangantakar maganaɗisun magnetic kusan 14-200 ne. Rashin baƙin ƙarfe da kwanciyar hankali na zafin jiki suna tsakanin MPP da baƙin ƙarfe-silicon-aluminum. Gilashin ƙarfe-nickel mai haɗin ƙarfe yana da haɓakar haɓakar haɓakar magnetic mai ƙarfi, game da Gauss 15,000, kuma zai iya tsayayya da igiyar ruwan DC mafi girma, kuma halayen son zuciya na DC sun fi kyau. Aikace-aikacen aikace-aikace: correctionarfin ƙarfin aiki mai aiki, rashin ƙarfin ajiyar makamashi, ƙarancin tacewa, mai saurin mita mai saurin sauyawar juyi, da sauransu.

 

D. powderarfin ƙarfe

Madearfin ƙarfe baƙin ƙarfe an yi shi ne da ƙwaƙƙwashin ƙarfe mai ƙwanƙwan ƙarfe tare da ƙananan ƙananan ƙananan abubuwa waɗanda aka rufe daga juna. Tsarin masana'antu yana sanya shi rashi iska mai rarraba. Baya ga siffar zobe, ainihin baƙin ƙarfe foda ainihin siffofin kuma suna da nau'in E da nau'ikan hatimi. Mahimmancin maganadisu na ƙarfe foda yana da kusan 10 zuwa 75, kuma babban ƙarfin magnetic juzu'i yana kusan 15000 Gauss. Daga cikin ƙwayoyin ƙarfen foda, tushen baƙin ƙarfe yana da mafi girman asarar baƙin ƙarfe amma mafi ƙarancin tsada.

Hoto na 3 yana nuna BH masu lankwasa na PC47 manganese-zinc ferrite da TDK da baƙin ƙarfe da baƙin ƙarfe ke sarrafawa -52 da -2 waɗanda MICROMETALS suka ƙera; yanayin magnetic dangi na manganese-zinc ferrite ya fi na ƙarfen foda ƙwarai da gaske kuma yana da wadataccen fluarfin magnetic yana da banbanci sosai, ferrite ɗin ya kai kimanin Gauss 5000 kuma asalin foda baƙin ƙarfe ya fi 10000 Gauss.

图片3   3

Hoto na 3. BH mai lankwasawar manganese-zinc ferrite da baƙin ƙarfe mai yalwar baƙin ƙarfe na abubuwa daban-daban

 

A taƙaice, halayen jikewa na ƙarfe ya bambanta; da zarar ƙarfin jijiyoyin ya wuce, magnetic permeability na ferrite core zai sauke ƙasa, yayin da guntun ƙarfen ƙarfe na iya raguwa a hankali. Hoto na 4 yana nuna alamun sauke maganadisu na asalin ƙarfe mai ƙwanƙwasa tare da daidaiton maganadisu iri ɗaya da ferrite tare da ratar iska ƙarƙashin underarfin filin maganadisu daban-daban. Wannan kuma yana bayanin rashin ingancin sinadarin ferrite, saboda iyawa yana raguwa sosai lokacin da cibiya ta cika, kamar yadda ake iya gani daga lissafin (1), shi ma yana haifar da rashin karfin ya ragu sosai; yayin da foda take tare da ratayen iska mai rarraba, magnetic permeability Rage yana raguwa a hankali lokacin da guntun ƙarfe ya cika, don haka ƙarancin ƙarfi yana raguwa a hankali, ma'ana, yana da kyawawan halaye na bias DC. A aikace-aikacen masu jujjuya karfi, wannan halayyar tana da matukar muhimmanci; idan halayyar saurin nutsuwa na mai sanyaya abu ba mai kyau bane, yanayin karfin inductor a yanzu ya tashi zuwa yanayin saduwa, kuma faduwar gaba kwatsam zai haifar da damuwar yanzu ta kristal mai sauyawa ya tashi da sauri, wanda yake da saukin lalacewa.

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Hoto 4. Magnetic permeability drop halaye na ƙarfe baƙin ƙarfe core da ferrite baƙin ƙarfe core tare da rata iska a karkashin daban-daban magnetic filin ƙarfi.

 

Hanyoyin lantarki masu haɓaka da tsarin kunshin

Lokacin tsara mai canzawa mai juyawa da kuma zaɓar mai haɓaka, ƙimar shigar L, impedance Z, AC juriya ACR da ƙimar Q (ƙimar inganci), ƙimar IDC da ISAT na yanzu, da asara mai mahimmanci (asara mai mahimmanci) da sauran mahimman halaye na lantarki duk Dole ne a yi la'akari. Bugu da kari, tsarin marufi na inductor zai shafi girman zafin magnetic, wanda hakan ke shafar EMI. Abubuwan da ke gaba zasu tattauna abubuwan da muka ambata a baya daban azaman la'akari don zaɓar masu haɓaka.

1. uimar shigar da hankali (L)

Theimar shigar da abu mai mahimmanci ita ce mahimmin mahimmanci na asali a cikin ƙirar kewaya, amma dole ne a bincika ko ƙimar shigarwar ba ta da ƙarfi a yanayin aiki. Measuredimar mara azanci na inductance yawanci ana auna ta 100 kHz ko 1 MHz ba tare da son zuciya na waje na DC ba. Kuma don tabbatar da yiwuwar samar da kayan aiki ta atomatik, haƙurin mai shigarwar yawanci ctor 20% (M) da ± 30% (N). Hoto na 5 hoto ne mai saurin shigar da hankali na Taiyo Yuden inductor NR4018T220M wanda aka auna shi da mita LCR na Wayne Kerr. Kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin adadi, ƙimar darajar shigarwar ta yi laushi kaɗan kafin 5 MHz, kuma kusan ƙimar shigarwar ba za a iya ɗaukar ta a matsayin tsayayye ba. A cikin babban mitar band saboda rawar da aka samu ta hanyar ƙarfin parasitic da inductance, ƙimar haɓaka zai ƙaru. Ana kiran wannan ƙarfin ƙarfin ƙarfin ƙarfin ƙarfin ƙarfin kansa (SRF), wanda yawanci yana buƙatar zama mafi girma fiye da ƙarfin aiki.

图片5  5

Hoto 5, Taiyo Yuden NR4018T220M zane-zane na ma'aunin sifa

 

2. Impedance (Z)

Kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin hoto na 6, ana iya ganin zane na impedance daga aikin aiwatarwa a cikin mitoci daban-daban. Rashin ƙarfin inductor kusan yayi daidai da mitar (Z = 2πfL), don haka mafi girman mitar, amsawar zata fi ƙarfin AC ƙarfi, don haka ƙarancin ya zama kamar tsarkakakken yanayi (lokaci shine 90˚). A manyan mitoci, saboda tasirin ƙarfin parasitic, ana iya ganin maɓallin mitar ƙarfin ƙarfin kansa. Bayan wannan gaba, torarwar ta ragu kuma ta zama mai karfin aiki, kuma lokaci a hankali ya canza zuwa -90 ˚.

图片6  6

3. Q darajar da AC juriya (ACR)

Valueimar Q a cikin ma'anar inductance shine rabo na amsawa ga juriya, ma'ana, rabo daga cikin ɓangaren kirkirarren ɓangare zuwa ainihin ɓangaren impedance, kamar yadda yake a cikin tsari (2).

图片7

(2)

Inda XL shine amsawar inductor, kuma RL shine ƙarfin AC na inductor.

A cikin ƙananan mitar kewayon, ƙarfin AC yana da girma fiye da yadda aikin ke haifar da shi, saboda haka ƙimar ta Q tayi ƙasa ƙwarai; yayin da mitar ke ƙaruwa, aikin (game da 2πfL) ya zama ya fi girma da girma, koda kuwa juriya saboda tasirin fata (tasirin fata) da kusancin (kusanci) sakamako) Tasirin ya zama mafi girma da girma, kuma ƙimar Q har yanzu tana ƙaruwa tare da mita ; lokacin da aka kusanci SRF, tasirin kwayar cutar a hankali yana canza shi ta hanyar karfin karfin, kuma darajar Q a hankali tana karami; lokacin da SRF ya zama sifili, saboda maɓallin motsa jiki da mai karɓa ya cika duka Bacewa. Hoto na 7 yana nuna alaƙar tsakanin ƙimar Q da kuma yawan NR4018T220M, kuma dangantakar tana cikin siffar ƙararrawa mai jujjuyawa.

图片8  7

Hoto 7. Alaƙar da ke tsakanin ƙimar Q da mita na shigar Taiyo Yuden inductor NR4018T220M

A cikin mitar mitar aikace-aikacen rashin aiki, mafi girman ƙimar Q, mafi kyau; yana nufin cewa aikinta ya fi ƙarfin AC ƙarfi. Gabaɗaya magana, mafi kyawun ƙimar Q yana sama da 40, wanda ke nufin cewa ƙirar inductor tana da kyau. Koyaya, gabaɗaya yayin da son zuciya na DC ya ƙaru, ƙimar shigarwar zata ragu kuma ƙimar Q shima zai ragu. Idan ana amfani da waya mai laushi mai laushi ko waya mai laushi mai yawa, za a iya rage tasirin fata, wato, ƙarfin AC, kuma ƙimar Q na inductor ana iya ƙaruwa.

Ana ɗaukar DCR DCR DCR a matsayin ƙarfin DC na waya ta jan ƙarfe, kuma ana iya lasafta juriya gwargwadon iyakar waya da tsayi. Koyaya, yawancin ƙananan masu haɓaka SMD na yanzu zasuyi amfani da walda don yin takardar tagulla na SMD a tashar iska. Koyaya, saboda wayar tagulla ba ta da tsayi a tsawon kuma ƙimar juriya ba ta da yawa, juriya walda sau da yawa tana ba da babban rabo na juriya DC gaba ɗaya. SMaukar TDK ta rauni na waya SMD inductor CLF6045NIT-1R5N a matsayin misali, ƙarfin ƙarfin DC ɗin da aka auna shi ne 14.6mΩ, kuma juriya ta DC da aka lasafta bisa layin waya da tsayin ta 12.1mΩ ne. Sakamakon ya nuna cewa wannan juriya na walda ya kai kimanin 17% na juriya DC gaba ɗaya.

ACR juriya ACR yana da tasirin fata da tasirin kusanci, wanda zai haifar da ACR don ƙaruwa tare da mita; a cikin aikace-aikacen shigarwar gabaɗaya, saboda ƙungiyar AC ta ragu sosai fiye da ɓangaren DC, tasirin da ACR ya haifar ba a bayyane yake ba; amma a cikin sauƙi, Saboda sashin DC ya ragu, asarar da ACR ta haifar ba za a iya watsi da ita ba. Tasirin fata yana nufin cewa a ƙarƙashin yanayin AC, rarrabawar yanzu a cikin mai gudanarwar ba daidai ba ce kuma tana mai da hankali akan saman waya, wanda ke haifar da raguwa a cikin yanki daidai wajan giciye, wanda hakan yana ƙara ƙarfin juriya na waya tare da mita. Bugu da kari, a cikin hadawar waya, wayoyi masu kusa zasu haifar da kari da ragi na magnetic filayen saboda na yanzu, don haka yanzu yana mai da hankali akan farfajiyar kusa da waya (ko mafi nisa nesa, dangane da shugabanci na yanzu ), wanda kuma yake haifar da daidaito na waya. Lamarin da yankin ya ragu kuma ƙarfin jituwa daidai yake ƙaruwa shine abin da ake kira kusancin sakamako; a cikin aikace-aikacen shigar da iska mai iska da iska, tasirin kusancin ya ma fi bayyane.

图片9  8

Hoto na 8 yana nuna alaƙar da ke tsakanin juriya ta AC da kuma yawan waya mai rauni SMD inductor NR4018T220M. A mita na 1kHz, juriya kusan 360mΩ ne; a 100kHz, juriya ya tashi zuwa 775mΩ; a 10MHz, ƙimar juriya ta kusa da 160Ω. Lokacin kimanta asarar tagulla, lissafi dole ne yayi la'akari da ACR da fata da tasirin kusancin suka haifar, kuma gyara shi zuwa dabara (3).

4. Jikewar halin yanzu (ISAT)

Satatus na yanzu Satat shine gabaɗaya nuna fifiko a yayin da aka haɓaka darajar shigarwar kamar 10%, 30%, ko 40%. Ga ferrite-gap ferrite, saboda yanayin halinsa na yau da kullun yana da hanzari, babu bambanci sosai tsakanin 10% da 40%. Koma Zuwa Hoto na 4. Duk da haka, idan asalin ƙarfe ne na ƙarfe (kamar su inductor hatimi), ƙwanƙolin jikewa mai sauƙi ne, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin Hoto na 9, halin nuna wariyar a 10% ko 40% na haɓakar haɓaka yana da yawa daban-daban, don haka za a tattauna ƙimar jike-jiji a halin yanzu daban don nau'ikan ƙarfe biyu kamar haka.

Don ferrite-rata ferrite, yana da kyau ayi amfani da ISAT azaman babbar iyaka na matsakaicin inductor na yanzu don aikace-aikacen kewaye. Koyaya, idan ƙarfe ne na baƙin ƙarfe, saboda yanayin saurin jikewa, ba za a sami matsala ba koda kuwa iyakar matsakaiciyar hanyar aikace-aikacen ta wuce ISAT. Sabili da haka, wannan halayen halayen ƙarfe shine mafi dacewa don sauya aikace-aikacen masu sauyawa. A karkashin nauyi mai nauyi, kodayake darajar shigar da inductor ba ta da yawa, kamar yadda aka nuna a hoto na 9, halin da ake ciki yanzu yana da girma, amma haƙuri na yanzu yana da girma, don haka ba zai zama matsala ba. Loadarkashin nauyi mai sauƙi, ƙarancin inductance na inductor ɗin ya fi girma, wanda ke taimaka wajan rage ƙwanƙwasawar mai shigarwar, ta haka yana rage baƙin ƙarfe. Hoto na 9 yana kwatanta ƙwanƙolin halin yanzu na TDK na raunin rauni mai ƙarfi SLF7055T1R5N da baƙin ƙarfe mai ƙwanƙwasa maƙallin ƙarfe mai ƙarfi SPM6530T1R5M a ƙarƙashin ƙimar darajar mara inganci.

图片9   9

Hoto 9. Cikewar jijiyoyin rauni na yau da kullun da ƙarfen ƙarfe na ƙarfe a ƙarƙashin ƙimar ƙimar shigarwar ciki

5. An ba da izini a halin yanzu (IDC)

IDimar IDC ita ce nuna wariyar DC lokacin da yanayin zafin jiki ya hau zuwa Tr˚C. Ayyadaddun bayanan kuma suna nuna ƙimar ƙarfin ƙarfin DC na RDC a 20˚C. Dangane da yanayin zafin karfe na tagulla kusan 3,930 ppm ne, lokacin da zazzabin Tr ya tashi, ƙimar juriyarsa ita ce RDC_Tr = RDC (1 + 0.00393Tr), kuma yawan amfani da shi shine PCU = I2DCxRDC. Wannan asarar jan karfe ana watsewa a saman inductor, kuma za a iya lissafin juriya mai zafi ΘTH na inductor:

图片13(2)

Tebur na 2 yana nufin takaddun bayanai na jerin TDK VLS6045EX (6.0 × 6.0 × 4.5mm), kuma yana kirga yanayin ƙarfin a haɓakar zafin jiki 40˚C. A bayyane yake, ga masu jan hankali iri iri da girma, lissafin juriya na zafin jiki kusan iri daya ne saboda yanki mai yaduwar zafi iri daya; a wasu kalmomin, ana iya kimanta IDC na yanzu na masu haɓaka daban-daban. Daban-daban jerin (fakiti) na masu haɓaka suna da tsayayyar yanayin zafi daban-daban. Tebur na 3 yayi kwatankwacin juriya na zafin jiki na masu jan silsilar TDK VLS6045EX (mai garkuwar kare) da kuma jerin SPM6530 (wanda aka tsara). Mafi girman tsayin daka na thermal, mafi girman yanayin zafin jiki da aka samar yayin shigarwar abubuwa ta cikin kayan aiki; in ba haka ba, ƙananan.

图片14  (2)

Tebur 2. Juriya mai zafi na VLS6045EX jerin masu haɓaka a haɓakar zafin jiki na 40˚C

Ana iya gani daga Tebur na 3 cewa koda kuwa girman masu sanya Injiniya yayi kama, ƙarfin juriya na zafin inductors ya yi ƙasa, ma'ana, watsewar zafi ya fi kyau.

图片15  (3)

Tebur 3. Kwatanta yanayin juriya na masu kunshe da kunshin daban-daban.

 

6. Babban asara

Asara mai mahimmanci, wanda ake kira as as iron, yawanci ana haifar dashi ne ta hanyar eddy a halin yanzu da asarar hysteresis. Girman asarar eddy a halin yanzu yafi dogara da ko ainihin abu mai sauƙi ne don “gudanar”; idan yanayin haɓaka yana da yawa, ma'ana, juriya ba ta da yawa, rashin hasara na yanzu yana da girma, kuma idan juriya na ferrite ya yi yawa, to a halin yanzu asarar eddy tana da ƙasa kaɗan. Rashin Eddy na yanzu yana da alaƙa da mita. Mafi girman mitar, mafi girman lalacewar halin yanzu. Sabili da haka, ainihin abu zai ƙayyade madaidaicin ƙarfin aiki na ainihin. Gabaɗaya magana, yawan aiki na ƙarfen foda na ƙarfe na iya kaiwa 1MHz, kuma ƙarfin aiki na ferrite na iya kaiwa 10MHz. Idan yawan aiki ya wuce wannan mitar, asara na yanzu zai haɓaka cikin sauri kuma ƙarancin zafin jiki na ƙarfe shima zai ƙaru. Koyaya, tare da saurin haɓakar kayan ƙarfe, ƙarfen ƙarfe tare da maɗaukakiyar mitar aiki yakamata ya kasance kusa da kusurwa.

Wani asarar baƙin ƙarfe ita ce asarar hysteresis, wanda yake daidai da yankin da ƙwanƙollar ƙyallen ke rufe, wanda ke da alaƙa da yawan juzuwar haɓakar AC na halin yanzu; mafi girman AC lilo, mafi girman asarar hysteresis.

A cikin da'irar daidai da inductor, ana amfani da resistor mai hade a layi daya da inductor don bayyana asarar baƙin ƙarfe. Lokacin da mitar ta yi daidai da SRF, sai a soke abin da ke haifar da aiki, kuma aikin daidai yake sifili. A wannan lokacin, ƙarancin inductor yayi daidai da juriya na asarar baƙin ƙarfe a jeri tare da jurewar iska, kuma juriya da asarar baƙin ƙarfe ya fi girma girma fiye da juriya na iska, don haka impedance a SRF ya yi daidai da juriya na asarar baƙin ƙarfe. Aaukar inductor mai karamin wuta a matsayin misali, juriyarsa na asara kusan 20kΩ ne. Idan ƙarfin ƙarfin tasiri a ƙarshen ƙarshen inductor yakai kimanin 5V, asararsa ta kusan 1.25mW, wanda kuma ya nuna cewa mafi girman ƙarfin ƙarfin baƙin ƙarfe, shine mafi kyau.

7. Tsarin Garkuwa

Tsarin marufin na ferrite inductors ya hada da wadanda ba a karewa ba, an katange su da magnetic magnetic, da kuma garkuwar, kuma akwai ratar iska mai yawa a cikin ko wannensu. A bayyane yake, ratar iska zata sami magnetic leakage, kuma a cikin mafi munin yanayi, zai tsoma baki tare da ƙananan kewayen siginar da ke kewaye da su, ko kuma idan akwai abu mai maganadisu a kusa, za a kuma canza tasirinsa. Wani tsarin kayan kwalliya shine inductor na baƙin ƙarfe foda. Tunda babu rata a cikin inductor kuma tsarin winding yana da karfi, matsalar yaduwar filin maganadisu kadan ne. Hoto na 10 shine amfani da aikin FFT na ostoloscope na RTO 1004 don auna girman maganadisu mai zubewa a 3mm a sama da gefen maƙerin inductor. Tebur na 4 yana lissafin kwatancen magnetic magudanar yanayi na nau'ikan kunshin tsarin kunshin. Ana iya ganin cewa masu ba da kariya ba masu haɗari suna da zafin zafin maganadisu; hatimi masu jan samari suna da ƙaramin kwararar maganadisu, wanda ke nuna kyakkyawan tasirin garkuwar maganadisu. . Bambanci a girman girman maganadisun maganadisu na masu haɓaka waɗannan sifofi guda biyu yakai 14dB, wanda yake kusan sau 5 kenan.

10图片16

Hoto 10. Girman karfin maganadisu da aka auna a 3mm sama da gefen sittar inductor

图片17 (4)

Tebur 4. Kwatanta filin maganadisu ya zube daban-daban kunshin tsarin inductors

8. hadawa

A wasu aikace-aikacen, wasu lokuta akwai masu jujjuyawar juzu'in DC akan PCB, waɗanda yawanci ana shirya su kusa da juna, kuma masu daidaita abubuwan haɗi suma ana shirya su kusa da juna. Idan kayi amfani da mara kariya ko nau'in kariya mai kariya tare da manne mai maganadisu za a iya haɗa masu juna da juna don samar da tsangwama na EMI. Sabili da haka, yayin sanya inductor, ana ba da shawarar yin alama game da iyawar inductor da farko, kuma a haɗa farkon farawa da murɗewar layin da ke ciki na inductor zuwa wutar lantarki ta mai sauyawa, kamar VSW na mai sauya kuɗi, wanda shine wurin motsawa. An haɗa tashar fitarwa zuwa mai sarrafa fitarwa, wanda shine maɓallin tsaye; don haka sai tagar wayar tagulla take samarda wani mataki na garkuwar filin lantarki. A cikin tsarin wayoyi na multiplexer, kayyade iyakacin tasirin shigarwar yana taimakawa wajen daidaita girman shigarwar juna da kaucewa wasu matsalolin EMI da ba zato ba tsammani.

Aikace-aikace:

Babin da ya gabata ya tattauna ainihin abu, tsarin kunshin, da mahimman halayen lantarki na inductor. Wannan babi zai yi bayanin yadda za a zabi darajar shigar da buck da kuma abubuwan da za a zaba don zabar mai samar da na'urar.

Kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin lissafi (5), ƙimar inductor da yawan sauyawar mai canzawa zasu shafi mai shigar da wutar a yanzu (ΔiL). Theanƙarar ƙirar inductor zata gudana ta cikin ƙarfin ƙarfin fitarwa kuma ya shafi raƙuman ƙarancin ƙarfin ƙarfin haɓakar fitarwa. Sabili da haka, zai iya shafar zaɓin ƙarfin haɓakar fitarwa kuma ya ƙara tasiri ƙimar girman ƙarfin ƙarfin fitarwa. Hakanan, ƙimar haɓaka da ƙimar ƙarfin ƙarfin fitarwa kuma zai shafi tasirin ra'ayoyin ra'ayoyin tsarin da amsar motsi mai nauyi. Zaɓin ƙimar haɓaka mafi girma yana da ƙarancin damuwa na yanzu akan mai ƙarfin, kuma yana da fa'ida don rage ƙarfin ƙarfin ƙarfin fitarwa kuma zai iya adana ƙarin kuzari. Koyaya, ƙimar shigar da hankali mafi girma tana nuna ƙarar girma, ma'ana, tsada mafi tsada. Sabili da haka, yayin zayyana mai sauyawa, ƙirar ƙimar shigarwar abu yana da mahimmanci.

图片18        (5)

Ana iya gani daga dabara (5) cewa lokacin da rata tsakanin ƙarfin ƙarfin shigarwa da ƙarfin fitarwa ya fi girma, haɓakar haɓakar haɓaka za ta fi girma, wanda shine mafi munin yanayin yanayin ƙirar inductor. Haɗa tare da sauran nazarin motsawa, ma'anar ƙirar shigarwar mai sauyawa zuwa ƙasa yawanci ya kamata a zaɓi ƙarƙashin yanayin matsakaicin ƙarfin shigarwa da cikakken loda.

Lokacin zayyana darajar shigar da abu, ya zama dole a yi ciniki tsakanin masu karfin igiyar wuta da kuma karfin mai karfin, kuma an ayyana abin da yake faruwa yanzu ((); kamar yadda yake a tsari (6).

图片196)

Canjin maye gurbin (6) zuwa dabara (5), ƙimar shigarwar za a iya bayyana azaman dabara (7).

图片20  ) 7)

Dangane da tsari (7), lokacin da bambanci tsakanin shigarwar da ƙarfin fitarwa ya fi girma, can ƙimar za a iya zaɓar ya fi girma; akasin haka, idan shigar da ƙarfin fitarwa sun fi kusa, γ ƙirar ƙirar dole ne ta zama karama. Don zaɓar tsakanin mai ƙwanƙwasawa na yanzu da girman, gwargwadon ƙimar ƙwarewar ƙirar gargajiya, γ yawanci 0.2 zuwa 0.5. Mai zuwa yana ɗaukar RT7276 a matsayin misali don kwatanta lissafin shigarwar da zaɓi na masu samar da wutar lantarki masu kasuwanci.

Misalin zane: An tsara shi tare da RT7276 mai ci gaba mai aiki akan lokaci (Advanced Constant On-Time; ACOT TM) mai daidaitaccen gyara mai sauƙaƙewa, yawan sauyawar sa shine 700 kHz, ƙarfin shigarwar shine 4.5V zuwa 18V, kuma ƙarfin ƙarfin fitarwa shine 1.05V . Cikakken halin yanzu shine 3A. Kamar yadda aka ambata a sama, dole ne a tsara ƙimar shigarwar a ƙarƙashin yanayin matsakaicin ƙarfin shigarwar wuta na 18V da cikakken nauyin 3A, ana ɗaukar darajar of azaman 0.35, kuma an sauya darajar da ke sama zuwa lissafi (7), shigarwar darajar ita ce

图片21

 

Yi amfani da mai ba da izini tare da ƙimar mara ƙarfi na 1.5 µH. Maɓallin maye gurbin (5) don ƙididdige mai haɓaka mai haɓakawa kamar haka.

图片22

Sabili da haka, ƙwanƙolin ƙarfin mai haɓakawa shine

图片23

Kuma ingancin ingancin inductor na yanzu (IRMS) shine

图片24

Saboda abubuwanda ke sanya igiya masu karami karami ne, tasirin inganci na inductor current shine akasarin kayan aikin DC, kuma wannan ingantaccen darajar ana amfani dashi azaman madogarar zabar inductor din da aka yiwa IDC na yanzu. Tare da 80% derating (derating) zane, abubuwan shigarwa sune:

 

L = 1.5 µH (100 kHz), IDC = 3.77 A, ISAT = 4.34 A

 

Tebur na 5 ya lissafa samfuran samfuran daban-daban na TDK, kama da girman su amma sun sha bamban a tsarin kunshin. Ana iya gani daga tebur cewa yanayin jikewa da na yanzu wanda aka sawa a ciki (SPM6530T-1R5M) suna da girma, kuma juriya ta zafin kaɗan ce kuma zafin zafin yana da kyau. Bugu da kari, bisa ga tattaunawar a babin da ya gabata, babban kayan abu na hatimin inductor shine ainihin sinadarin foda, don haka idan aka kwatanta shi da mahimmin ferrite na garkuwar da aka kare (VLS6045EX-1R5N) da masu garkuwar (SLF7055T-1R5N) masu haɓaka da magnetic manne. , Yana da halaye masu kyau na DC. Hoto na 11 yana nuna ƙwarewar kwatancen masu haɓakawa daban-daban waɗanda aka yi amfani da su a kan RT7276 ci gaba mai daidaitaccen daidaitaccen gyara mai sauƙin sauƙaƙewa zuwa ƙasa. Sakamakon ya nuna cewa bambancin aiki tsakanin ukun bashi da mahimmanci. Idan kayi la'akari da watsewar zafi, halaye na son zuciya na DC da kuma maganganun yaduwar filin magnetic, ana bada shawarar yin amfani da masu haɓakawa na SPM6530T-1R5M.

图片25) 5)

Tebur 5. Kwatanta abubuwan rashin daidaito na jerin TDK daban-daban

图片26 11

Hoto na 11: Kwatanta yanayin yadda za a canza abubuwa tare da injina daban-daban

Idan kun zaɓi tsari iri ɗaya na kunshin da ƙimar shigarwa, amma ƙananan masu haɓaka, kamar su SPM4015T-1R5M (4.4 × 4.1 × 1.5mm), kodayake girmanta ƙarami ne, amma ƙarfin DC ɗin RDC (44.5mΩ) da juriya mai zafi ΘTH ( 51˚C) / W) Mafi Girma. Ga masu jujjuya bayanai iri ɗaya, ingancin ingancin halin yanzu wanda mai haɓakawa ya yarda shima daidai ne. A bayyane yake, ƙarfin DC zai rage ƙimar aiki a ƙarƙashin nauyi mai nauyi. Bugu da kari, babban juriya na yanayin zafi yana nufin rashin yaduwar zafi mara kyau. Sabili da haka, yayin zaɓar mai haɓakawa, ba lallai ne kawai a yi la'akari da fa'idodin rage girman ba, amma kuma a kimanta gazawar da ke tattare da ita.

 

A ƙarshe

Uunƙwasawa ɗayan abubuwa ne da aka saba amfani dasu a cikin sauya masu canza wuta, wanda za'a iya amfani dashi don ajiyar makamashi da tacewa. Koyaya, a cikin ƙirar kewaya, ba kawai ƙimar shigarwa ake buƙata a mai da hankali ba, amma sauran sigogi waɗanda suka haɗa da ƙarfin AC da ƙimar Q, haƙuri na yanzu, ƙarancin baƙin ƙarfe, da tsarin kunshin, da sauransu, duk sigogi ne waɗanda dole ne za'ayi la'akari dashi yayin zabar mai ba da wuta. . Waɗannan sigogi yawanci suna da alaƙa da ainihin abu, tsarin ƙera masana'antu, da girma da farashi. Sabili da haka, wannan labarin yana gabatar da halaye na kayan ƙarfe daban-daban da yadda za a zaɓi haɓakar da ta dace azaman abin tunani ga ƙirar samar da wutar lantarki.

 


Post lokaci: Jun-15-2021